Rhinitis

What is rhinitis?

Rhinitis is a reaction that occurs in the eyes, nose and throat when airborne irritants (allergens) trigger the release of histamine. Histamine causes inflammation and fluid production in the fragile linings of nasal passages, sinuses, and eyelids.

The two categories of rhinitis are:

Allergic rhinitis

There are two types of allergic rhinitis:

  • seasonal - occurs particularly during pollen seasons
  • perennial - occurs throughout the year

The most-common causes of allergic rhinitis

  • pollen
  • dust mites
  • mold
  • animal dander

Reactions from allergic rhinitis?

  • sneezing
  • congestion
  • runny nose
  • itchy nose, throat, eyes, and ears

Preventive measures for avoiding allergic rhinitis

  • environmental controls, such as air conditioning, during pollen season
  • avoiding areas where there is heavy dust, mites, molds
  • avoiding pets

Treatments for allergic rhinitis, as determined by your physician and based on your condition may include

  • oral medications
  • inhaled medications
  • immunotherapy
  • allergy injections

Nonallergic rhinitis

Types of nonallergic rhinitis are:

  • vasomotor rhinitis (irritant rhinitis)
  • eosinophilic
  • rhinitis medicamentosa
  • neutrophilic rhinosinusitis
  • structural rhinitis
  • nasal polyps
  • primary vasomotor instability

Causes of nonallergic rhinitis

  • fumes
  • odors
  • temperature
  • atmospheric changes
  • smoke
  • other irritants

Reactions from nonallergic rhinitis

  • sneezing
  • congestion
  • runny nose
  • itchy nose, throat, eyes, and ears

The preventive measure for avoiding nonallergic rhinitis is avoiding the primary cause.

Treatments for nonallergic rhinitis, as determined by your physician and based on your condition, may include

  • oral medications
  • inhaled medications
  • immunotherapy
  • allergy injections
  • surgery for some conditions

Read more of this article and related materials from The Centers for Chronic Nasal and Sinus Dysfunction at Nasal.net.

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